The agreement has been criticised and rejected by some trade unions, charities, NGOs and environmentalists, particularly in Europe.  The Independent describes the frequent criticism of TTIP as “reducing regulatory barriers to large companies, food security, environmental legislation, banking regulation and the sovereignty of individual nations” or more critical as an “attack on European and American companies by transnational groups”.  The Guardian criticized the “undemocratic nature of closed-door talks,” “the influence of powerful lobbyists,” TTIP`s potential ability to “undermine the democratic authority of local authorities” and called it “the most controversial trade agreement the EU has ever negotiated.”  German economist Max Otte argued that TTIP would have a negative impact on European social models if it put European workers in direct competition with the Americans (because of the North American free trade agreement with Mexicans and Canadians.  An EU mechanism for direct democracy, the European Citizens` Initiative, which allows European citizens to directly ask the European Commission to propose a legislative act has garnered more than 3.2 million signatures against TTIP and CETA in the space of a year.   The aim is to remove barriers to transatlantic trade and to further open markets on both sides of the Atlantic. To this end, the EU and the United States are negotiating a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement. The Guardian called TTIP “the most controversial trade deal ever negotiated by the EU.”  TTIP negotiations are criticised and rejected by some trade unions, charities, NGOs and environmentalists, particularly in Europe.   The Independent summarizes the negative effects of TTIP as “reducing regulatory barriers to large companies, food security, environmental legislation, banking regulation and sovereigns of different nations” or more critical than “the attack on European and American companies by transnational groups”.  German economist Max Otte stated that proposed arbitration (ISDR) and the protection of foreign investment would mean a “total deviation from policy” and that free trade agreements on the labour economy would generally apply lower standards and that the TTIP would put European workers in direct competition with the Americans (and, in fact, under the North American free trade agreement with the Mexicans).
which would have an impact on European social models.  Otte also concluded: “We really don`t want the social system of these countries [U.S. and Mexico] here [in Europe].”  The content of draft treaties and reports on rounds of negotiations are classified by the public, an agreement that The Independent has criticized as “secret and undemocratic”.  As noted above, elected representatives can only consult the texts in a secure “reading room” in Brussels, in order to avoid any new wave of information on the TTIP negotiations. The following initiatives by European policy makers and the US government were: 1995, the creation of a business interest group, the Transatlantic Trade Dialogue (TABD) by authorities on both sides of the Atlantic; 1998, the creation of an advisory committee, the Transatlantic Economic Partnership; The Transatlantic Economic Council was established in 2007, bringing together business representatives from both sides of the Atlantic to advise the European Commission and the US government – and finally, in 2011, the creation of a high-level panel of experts whose conclusions, presented on 11 February 2013, recommended the opening of negotiations for a large-scale free trade agreement. On February 12, 2013, in his annual State of the Union address, President Barack Obama called for such an agreement.  The next day, the President of the European Commission, Jose Manuel Barroso, announced discussions on negotiating the agreement.   Towards the end of 2016,